Children’s Matters

Parenting Arrangements

Following separation, many parents are able to reach agreement between themselves in regard to arrangements for the care of their children. Often, non-legally binding agreements, known as Parenting Plans, are satisfactory for many parents. However, if there is a dispute about  the post-separation parenting arrangements parents may need to attend a Family Dispute Resolution service for mediation, where a Parenting Plan can be drafted with the assistance of a third party, or otherwise engage a lawyer to negotiate on their behalf .

If parties cannot resolve their dispute through mediation, or family violence makes Family Dispute Resolution unsuitable, an Application to the Family Court of Australia or the Federal Circuit Court for Parenting Orders may be necessary. Unlike Parenting Plans, Court Orders are enforceable and binding. Parties also have the option of entering into a Court Order by consent, without the need for attendance at Court.

Pursuant to the Family Law Act 1975 , when making parenting orders, the paramount consideration of the Court is to make arrangements which are in the best interest of the children. When determining the best interests of the children, the two major considerations will be ensuring the children are protected from physical or psychological harm from being exposed to family violence; and to ensure the children have the benefit of a relationship with both parents. The Court will also take note of a range of other relevant considerations.

Disputes can also arise between parents who have never lived together, and can also involve third parties such as grandparents who have an interest in the care, welfare and development of the children.

The lawyers at Nicholes Family Lawyers can assist you in all aspects of parenting disputes, from providing initial advice to give you the tools to assist you negotiate with your former partner, to  negotiating on your behalf, or representing you in Court proceedings. Our lawyers are trained in alternative dispute resolution and Collaborative law, and are able to refer you to counsellors and psychologists for therapeutic counselling  if this is necessary. At Nicholes Family Lawyers, we understand that each family is different and the most appropriate parenting arrangements will therefore be different for each family. Specialist family law advice should be obtained as soon as possible after separation.


The law regarding relocation of children is complex, and the outcome of any dispute regarding relocation will largely depend on each family’s own set of unique facts.  If one parent wishes to relocate to another city, state or country and this will interfere with the arrangements in place for the children to live with or spend time with the other parent, the consent of the other parent is required. If the other parent does not consent, and attempts to negotiate or mediate fail, an Application to the Family Court of Australia may be necessary. There is often no easy answer to relocation disputes and specialist legal advice is recommended.  As in all parenting disputes, the Family Court will make Orders regarding any possible relocation that are considered to be in the best interests of the children.

At Nicholes Family Lawyers, our lawyers are experienced in representing clients who are seeking to relocate with their children as well as experience representing clients who  oppose relocation. We always attempt to resolve relocation disputes without resorting to litigation. However, we are experienced in all aspects of representing clients in Court if necessary.

Hague Convention Matters

One area that sets Nicholes Family Lawyers apart from other family law firms is their focus, skills and expertise in Hague Convention matters.

The Hague Convention is an international treaty to which Australia is a party that seeks to protect children from international abduction and retention across international borders and provides a mechanism for seeking the return of children who have been abducted either from Australia, or to Australia from another country (if that county is also party to the Hague Convention).

Nicholes Family Lawyers has been involved in various high profile international abduction cases and has been successful in returning abducted children to their parents or other persons concerned with their safety and wellbeing, whilst also acting successfully for a number of parents seeking to retain their child/children in Australia from other Hague Convention countries in circumstances where defences can be argued for the non-return of a child/children to a Hague Convention country.

Nicholes Family Lawyers recognises the key requirements and criteria for making applications to the Family Court of Australia under the Hague Convention as well as dealing with international authorities and jurisdictional hurdles in a variety of countries around the world.

Special Medical Procedures for Children

There are certain special medical procedures for children which fall outside parental responsibility to consent to the treatment on behalf of a child and require determination by the Court. Medical procedures which have been classified by the court as special medical procedures include treatment for Gender Identity Dysphoria and Disorders of Sexual Development and have also included surgical gender reassignment and heart surgery.

The landmark High Court case decision regarding special medical procedures is Marion’s case which established that the court needs to approve a special medical procedure or “non-therapeutic” treatment even if the parents agree where there is:

  1. a significant risk of the wrong decision being made; and
  2. where the consequences of such a wrong decision are particularly grave.

The court will then determine whether or not it is in the best interests of the child to undergo a particular medical procedure.

The following persons may make a special medical procedure application in relation to a child:

  • a parent;
  • a person who has a parenting order in relation to the child;
  • the child;
  • an independent children’s lawyer; or
  • any person concerned with the care, welfare and development of the child.

If you are unsure whether the treatment being sought on behalf of a child is classified as a special medical procedure then we recommend seeking specialist legal advice.

Gender Identity Dysphoria

The courts have found that treatment of Gender Identity Dysphoria (“GID”) is a special medical procedure. The expression “GID” refers to people who experience sufficient discomfort (dysphoria) about the sex or gender they were assigned at birth. Such people include transsexuals and transgender individuals.

The leading case dealing with childhood GID is Re Jamie which was delivered by the Full Court of the Family Court on 31 July 2013.

The treatment for GID consists of two stages, namely:

  1. Stage 1 which consists of the administration of puberty suppressant hormones and the effects are reversible; and
  2. Stage 2 which consists of the administration of either oestrogen or testosterone and the effects are irreversible without surgical intervention.

In Re Jamie it was held that families seeking stage 1 treatment for a child no longer require court authorisation as the authorisation falls within the “wide ambit of parental responsibility”. This is provided that the parents, treating medical practitioners and the child agree and no other special circumstances exist.

In relation to stage 2 treatment for GID, if a child is considered “Gillick competent”, that is, they fully understand and appreciate the treatment that is being proposed, then they can consent to the treatment. A child must be aged 16 years of age to undergo stage 2 treatment. The court however must make the determination as to whether the child is Gillick competent even where the treating doctors and parents agree.

We specialise in these sorts of cases and have the requisite expertise to prepare an application to the Family Court for stage 2 treatment.

Disorders of Sexual Development (DSD) or Intersex conditions

There are a variety of intersex conditions in which a child is born with a biological variation of sexual anatomy between the two sexes, male and female. For example, a common DSD known as “CAH” refers to a person with female chromosomes having genitals that appear more masculine. Often the treatment being sought involves gender reassignment or sterilisation, which may mean that Court authorisation is required before treatment can commence.

It is not possible to list all DSD conditions that require Court authorisation as it will largely depend on the medical diagnosis. Where the treatment for the DSD however is for “non-therapeutic” purposes as defined in Re Marion’s case then it will likely classify as a special medical procedure requiring Court authorisation. If on the other hand, there is a genuine medical emergency or medical necessity for treatment then parents may be able to consent to the treatment.

Based on Australian reported case law there is an “unclear dividing line” as to which DSD cases require Court authorisation and those which may not. Where parents or the treating medical practitioners are ambivalent and unsure about whether the decision falls within the ambit of parental responsibility then it is prudent to seek specialist legal advice.

Medical procedures for intellectually disabled minors

Section 67ZC of the Family Law Act 1975 provides the Court with a broad welfare jurisdiction to make orders relating to children including intellectually disabled minors. The Court must have regard to the best interests of the child as the paramount consideration when making these orders.

There has been a growing number of family law cases in Australia involving the sterilisation of young women with intellectual disabilities, including the landmark Australian High Court decision of Marion’s case which involved the sterilisation of an intellectually disabled girl.

In such cases there is no question whether a child can consent to medical treatment as the child is not competent to do so. Therefore the question becomes whether the procedure should be characterised as a special medical procedure requiring court authorisation. If the answer is “yes”, then an Application must be made to the Family Court of Australia.

We recommend seeking legal advice if you are unsure whether the treatment being sought on behalf of an intellectually disabled child may constitute a special medical procedure.

Children’s Court Matters and DHHS intervention

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